After a fresh install of WordPress it is essential to complete the following items. This will not only assist you get your blog up and running but help you get the most out of your blog or website.
1. Change the Admin Password and Manage Your Authors
2. Edit Permalinks
3. Upload Your Theme and Activate It
4. Add Your Categories and Change the Default
5. Activate Akismet
6. Install Google XML Sitemaps
7. Install WordPress Database Backup
8. Test Your Blog With Dummy Content
9. Add your RSS feed to Feedburner
10. Activate your Analytics
For more details as to how to do these things check out the Source.